Días atrás, en medio de una discusión sobre las competencias en la formación de diseñadores industriales y las condiciones en el Taller de Proyecto, alguien comentó la necesidad de trabajar con en la administración de las ‘restricciones’. El comentario vino apoyado de un material que he visto publicado en innumerables blogs, pero que no pierde vigencia.

La legendaria pareja de diseñadores norteamericanos Charles y Ray Eames fueron también conocidos como productores de películas. Más de 74 piezas recogen el trabajo desarrollado por este dúo moderno, en la serie The Films of Charles & Ray Eames, un material audiovisual que recoge la filosofía de diseño de los Eames en tres décadas de trabajo. Un documento donde aparece en la icónica película Power of Ten que aborda el asunto de la escala en el diseño.

En 1969, la curadora Madame L’Amic del Musée Arts Decoratifs en Paris, invitó a participar a cinco diseñadores que aparecían en la escena internacional de la exhibición Qu’est ce que le design? (What Is Design?) y a responder una serie de preguntas sobre sus campos de trabajo. Joe Colombo (Italia), Charles Eames (USA), Fritz Eichler (Alemania), Werner Panton (Dinamarca) y Roger Tallon (Francia) presentaron el trabajo de sus oficinas, así como las respuestas impresas a una serie de 29 preguntas sobre la naturaleza del proceso de diseño.

La película Design Q&A recoge las respuestas de Charles Eames, en su propia voz. La fantástica exhibición, realizada en el Museo del Louvre en 1969, fue el origen de este material de 1972 financiada por la empresa Herman Miller, para la que el músico brasileño Laurindo Almeida compuso e interpretó las piezas para guitarra.

Design Q&A

What is your definition of ‘Design,’ Monsieur Eames?.
“One could describe Design as a plan for arranging elements to accomplish a particular purpose”.

Is Design an expression of art?.
“I would rather say it’s an expression of purpose. It may, if it is good enough, later be judged as art”.

Is Design a craft for industrial purposes?.
“No, but Design may be a solution to some industrial problems”.

What are the boundaries of Design?
“What are the boundaries of problems?”.

Is Design a discipline that concerns itself with only one part of the environment?.
“No”.

Is it a method of general expression?.
“No. It is a method of action”.

Is Design a creation of an individual?.
“No, because to be realistic, one must always recognize the influence of those that have gone before”.

Is Design a creation of a group?.
“Very often”.

Is there a Design ethic?.
“There are always Design constraints, and these often imply an ethic”.

Does Design imply the idea of products that are necessarily useful?.
“Yes, even though the use might be very subtle.”

Is it able to cooperate in the creation of works reserved solely for pleasure?.
“Who would say that pleasure is not useful?”.

Ought form to derive from the analysis of function?.
“The great risk here is that the analysis may be incomplete”.

Can the computer substitute for the Designer?.
“Probably, in some special cases, but usually the computer is an aid to the Designer”.

Does Design imply industrial manufacture?.
“Not necessarily”.

Is Design used to modify an old object through new techniques?.
“This is one kind of Design problem”.

Is Design used to fit up an existing model so that it is more attractive?.
“One doesn’t usually think of Design in this way”.

Is Design an element of industrial policy?.
“If Design constraints imply an ethic, and if industrial policy includes ethical principles, then yes—design is an element in an industrial policy”.

Does the creation of Design admit constraint?.
“Design depends largely on constraints”.

What constraints?.
“The sum of all constraints. Here is one of the few effective keys to the Design problem: the ability of the Designer to recognize as many of the constraints as possible; his willingness and enthusiasm for working within these constraints. Constraints of price, of size, of strength, of balance, of surface, of time, and so forth. Each problem has its own peculiar list”.

Does Design obey laws?.
“Aren’t constraints enough?”.

Are there tendencies and schools in Design?.
“Yes, but these are more a measure of human limitations than of ideals”.

Is Design ephemeral?.
“Some needs are ephemeral. Most designs are ephemeral”.

Ought Design to tend towards the ephemeral or towards permanence?.
“Those needs and Designs that have a more universal quality tend toward relative permanence”.

How would you define yourself with respect to a decorator? an interior architect? a stylist?.
“I wouldn’t”.

To whom does Design address itself: to the greatest number? to the specialists or the enlightened amateur? to a priviledged social class?.
“Design addresses itself to the need”.

After having answered all these questions, do you feel you have been able to practice the profession of ‘Design’ under satisfactory conditions, or even optimum conditions?.
“Yes”.

Have you been forced to accept compromises?.
“I don’t remember ever being forced to accept compromises, but I have willingly accepted constraints”.

What do you feel is the primary condition for the practice of Design and for its propagation?.
“A recognition of need”.

What is the future of Design?.
” ….”

Respuestas directas y sencillas de uno de los diseñadores más importantes del siglo XX. Eames se expresa con mucha claridad sobre aspectos fundamentales de la práctica del diseño. Verdaderamente aleccionador, aún en estos días, especialmente cuando se refiere al trabajo de diseño y las restricciones (constraints).

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Información

Eames Office | Charles and Ray Eames
www.eamesoffice.com